Antonova Ol'ga Gennad'evna, Doctor of sociological sciences, professor, sub-department of history, theory and applied sociology, Saratov State University (83 Astrakhanskaya street, Saratov, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Khayrullina Yulduz Rakibovna, Doctor of sociological sciences, professor, sub-department of general and ethnic sociology, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University (18 Kremlyovskaya street, Kazan, Russia); professor, principal researcher, department of micro and meso research, Center оf advanced economic studies of the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences (23/6 Karla Marksa street, Kazan, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Shchanina Ekaterina Vladimirovna, Doctor of sociological sciences, associate professor, professor of the sub-department of sociology and personnel management, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. The modern system of higher professional education in recent decades has been in the process of permanent reform both in the Russian Federation and in the countries of the near abroad. The training of engineering specialists is becoming more and more in demand in the socio-economic formation of our countries, which have both a common history, educational traditions, and development problems. One of them is the unrealized potential of universities, educational programs in terms of improving the theoretical and applied professional training of young specialists for industries, strengthening their attitudes towards practical work in the specialty received. The purpose of the article is to analyze the characteristics of professional motivation and adaptation practices of students of technical specialties in the post-Soviet space and ways to optimize them.
Materials and methods. The empirical base of the study was the results of the author’s sociological studies of students majoring in engineering in the Republic of Tatarstan (2010) and the Republic of Kazakhstan (2018). The sample in the Republic of Tatarstan was n = 796 people, young specialists working in energy sector enterprises; in the Republic of Kazakhstan n = 398 people, graduates of technical universities.
Results. Graduates of technical specialties of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Republic of Kazakhstan consider both levels of higher education – bachelor’s and master’s degrees most demanded – they are even interested in two higher educations, partly in post-graduate education – postgraduate studies, doctoral studies. The peculiarities of professional motivation are the combination of such characteristics of the future profession as preferable as the opportunity to get a high income, status and public demand, recognition, compliance with personal interests or family traditions. As for the adaptation strategies of young specialists, in general, they find the theoretical and practical knowledge and skills acquired as part of the training useful in working in the workplace. At the same time, they note the insufficiency of the latter and the need to expand their application in the framework of production practices, starting with junior courses. The biggest problems for graduates in the workplace were: lack of knowledge in the framework of specific job responsibilities, lack of mentoring, excessive requirements and workloads, inadequate pay, lack of a coherent corporate youth policy, and the availability of leadership for communication. At the same time, the majority believes that real work in the workplace contributes to the most optimal professional maturation, that enterprises and industries as a whole are interested in promising young employees. Therefore, many young specialists are going to study further, combine work with studies, they are aimed at qualification growth, upward mobility in the profession.
Conclusions. Modern states in the post-Soviet space are demonstrating economic growth, which makes engineering specialties more and more in demand, providing young professionals with social status and material stability. The research results showed that their motivational profile of obtaining a profession combines, along with decent pay, the value of the public good, respect, satisfaction with the nature and content of work. Enterprises, in turn, are also interested in the rotation of personnel, gradually begin to participate in improving the curriculum for training specialists of their required profile, in filling students’ field trips with applied content of relevant professional knowledge and skills. At the same time, on the basis of the data obtained, the problems of insufficient formation of teamwork skills, self-organization, social and professional adaptation abilities within the real production cycle, as well as their demand for mentoring institutions, targeted programs for supporting young specialists were revealed, innovative corporate projects for young families.
1. Antonova O. G., Dyl'nova Z. M. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Povolzhskiy region. Obshchestvennye nauki [University proceedings. Volga region. Social sciences]. 2017, no. 4 (44), pp. 127–135. [In Russian]
2. Minzaripov R. G., Ivshina G. V. Vysshee obrazovanie v Rossii [Russian higher education]. 2009, no. 5, pp. 42–50. [In Russian]
3. Golenkova Z. T., Kosharnaya G. B., Kosharnyy V. P. Integratsiya obrazovaniya [Integration of education]. 2018, vol. 22, no. 2 (91), pp. 262–273. [In Russian]
4. Zborovskiy G. E., Shuklina E. A. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological research]. 2005, no. 7, pp. 107–114. [In Russian]
5. Sydyқov Ұ. E., Mұқasheva A. B., Omarova A. T. Tekhnikalyқ zhoғary oқu oryndarynyң studentterі: sotsiologiyalyқ taldau [Students of technical universities: sociological analysis]. Almaty: ҚazҰTU, 2007, 178 p.
6. Turkpenova S. Zh. Sotsial'naya stratifikatsiya i sotsial'nye protsessy v Tsentral'noy Azii: materialy Mezhdunar. nauch. konf. [Social stratification and social processes in Central Asia: proceedings of International scientific conference]. Almaty, 2002, p. 488. [In Russian]
7. Antonova O. G. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Povolzhskiy region. Obshchestvennye nauki [University proseedings. Volga region. Social sciences]. 2018, no. 1 (45), pp. 89–98. [In Russian]
8. Natsional'nyy proekt «Obrazovanie» [National project “Education”]. Available at: https:// edu.gov.ru/national-project/ (accessed May 19, 2020). [In Russian]
9. O vnesenii izmeneniy v postanovlenie Kabineta Ministrov Respubliki Tatarstan ot 13.12.2018 № 1131 «Ob utverzhdenii pasportov regional'nykh proektov v ramkakh natsional'nogo proekta “Obrazovanie” v Respublike Tatarstan na 2019–2024 gody»: Postanovlenie Kabineta Ministrov Respubliki Tatarstan ot 30.03.2019 № 254 [On amendments to the ordinance of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Tatarstan from December 13, 2018 No 1131 “On approval of passports of regional projects within the framework of the national project “Education” in the Republic of Tatarstan for 2019–2024”: Ordinance of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Tatarstan from March 30, 2019 No 254]. Available at: https://mon.tatarstan.ru/rus/nac_proekt_obr.htm (accessed May 19, 2020). [In Russian]
10. Khayrullina Yu. R., Khizbullina R. R. Molodoy spetsialist: osobennosti sotsial'no-professional'noy sotsializatsii: monografiya [Young specialist: features of social and professional socialization: monograph]. Kazan: Kazanskiy gosudarstvennyy energeticheskiy un-t, 2012, 150 p. [In Russian]
11. Khayrullina Yu. R., Gabdullina E. N., Garipova R. R. Nepreryvnoe obrazovanie kak faktor formirovaniya chelovecheskogo kapitala v sovremennoy sotsial'no-ekonomicheskoy srede energeticheskogo klastera Respubliki Tatarstan: monografiya [Continuing education as a factor in the formation of human capital in the modern social and economic environment of the energy cluster of the Republic of Tatarstan: monograph]. Kazan: Kazanskiy gosudarstvennyy energeticheskiy un-t, 2016, 170 p. [In Russian]
12. Bueva L. P. et al. Obrazovanie i sotsial'nye vyzovy XXI veka: monografiya [Education and social challenges of the 21st century: monograph]. Russian Academy of Education; Institute for Scientific Information and Monitoring. Moscow: INIM RAO, 2010, 233 p. [In Russian]